Boron Compounds Exhibit Protective Effects against Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity and Genotoxicity: In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

Turkez H, Yıldırım S, Sahin E, Arslan ME, Emsen B, Tozlu OO, Alak G, Ucar A, Tatar A, Hacimuftuoglu A, Keles MS, Geyikoglu F, Atamanalp M, Saruhan F, Mardinoglu A

Toxics 10 (8) - [2022-07-28; online 2022-07-28]

Genetic, neuropathological and biochemical investigations have revealed meaningful relationships between aluminum (Al) exposure and neurotoxic and hematotoxic damage. Hence, intensive efforts are being made to minimize the harmful effects of Al. Moreover, boron compounds are used in a broad mix of industries, from cosmetics and pharmaceuticals to agriculture. They affect critical biological functions in cellular events and enzymatic reactions, as well as endocrinal and mineral metabolisms. There are limited dose-related data about boric acid (BA) and other boron compounds, including colemanite (Col), ulexite (UX) and borax (BX), which have commercial prominence. In this study, we evaluate boron compounds' genetic, cytological, biochemical and pathological effects against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced hematotoxicity and neurotoxicity on different cell and animal model systems. First, we perform genotoxicity studies on in vivo rat bone marrow cells and peripheric human blood cultures. To analyze DNA and chromosome damage, we use single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay) and micronucleus (MN) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays. The nuclear division index (NDI) is used to monitor cytostasis. Second, we examine the biochemical parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS)) to determine oxidative changes in blood and brain. Next, we assess the histopathological alterations by using light and electron microscopes. Our results show that Al increases oxidative stress and genetic damage in blood and brain in vivo and in vitro studies. Al also led to severe histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in the brain. However, the boron compounds alone did not cause adverse changes based on the above-studied parameters. Moreover, these compounds exhibit different levels of beneficial effects by removing the harmful impact of Al. The antioxidant, antigenotoxic and cytoprotective effects of boron compounds against Al-induced damage indicate that boron may have a high potential for use in medical purposes in humans. In conclusion, our analysis suggests that boron compounds (especially BA, BX and UX) can be administered to subjects to prevent neurodegenerative and hematological disorders at determined doses.

Adil Mardinoglu

SciLifeLab Fellow

PubMed 36006107

DOI 10.3390/toxics10080428

Crossref 10.3390/toxics10080428

pmc: PMC9413983
pii: toxics10080428

Publications 9.5.0