J Chem Phys 153 (14) 141103 [2020-10-14; online 2020-10-23]
Many membrane proteins are modulated by external stimuli, such as small molecule binding or change in pH, transmembrane voltage, or temperature. This modulation typically occurs at sites that are structurally distant from the functional site. Revealing the communication, known as allostery, between these two sites is key to understanding the mechanistic details of these proteins. Residue interaction networks of isolated proteins are commonly used to this end. Membrane proteins, however, are embedded in a lipid bilayer, which may contribute to allosteric communication. The fast diffusion of lipids hinders direct use of standard residue interaction networks. Here, we present an extension that includes cofactors such as lipids and small molecules in the network. The novel framework is applied to three membrane proteins: a voltage-gated ion channel (KCNQ1), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR-β2 adrenergic receptor), and a pH-gated ion channel (KcsA). Through systematic analysis of the obtained networks and their components, we demonstrate the importance of lipids for membrane protein allostery. Finally, we reveal how small molecules may stabilize different protein states by allosterically coupling and decoupling the protein from the membrane.