J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. - (-) 271678X211033358 [2021-07-22; online 2021-07-22]
Sleep has evolved as a universal core function to allow for restorative biological processes. Detailed knowledge of metabolic changes necessary for the sleep state in the brain is missing. Herein, we have performed an in-depth metabolic analysis of four mouse brain regions and uncovered region-specific circadian variations. Metabolites linked to oxidative stress were altered during sleep including acylcarnitines, hydroxylated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and thiol-containing metabolites. These findings provide molecular evidence of a significant metabolic shift of the brain energy metabolism. Specific alterations were observed for brain metabolites that have previously not been associated with a circadian function including the microbiome-derived metabolite ergothioneine that suggests a regulatory function. The pseudopeptide β-citryl-glutamate has been linked to brain development and we have now discovered a previously unknown regioisomer. These metabolites altered by the circadian rhythm represent the foundation for hypothesis-driven studies of the underlying metabolic processes and their function.