Geiser P, van Rijn JM, Sellin ME
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2641 (-) 203-221 [2023-04-19; online 2023-04-19]
Inflammasome-induced cell death is an epithelium-intrinsic innate immune response to pathogenic onslaught on epithelial barriers, caused by invasive microbes such as Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm). Pattern recognition receptors detect pathogen- or damage-associated ligands and elicit inflammasome formation. This ultimately restricts bacterial loads within the epithelium, limits breaching of the barrier, and prevents detrimental inflammatory tissue damage. Pathogen restriction is mediated via the specific extrusion of dying intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from the epithelial tissue, accompanied by membrane permeabilization at some stage of the process. These inflammasome-dependent mechanisms can be studied in real time in intestinal epithelial organoids (enteroids), which allow imaging at high temporal and spatial resolution in a stable focal plane when seeded as 2D monolayers. The protocols described here involve the establishment of murine and human enteroid-derived monolayers, as well as time-lapse imaging of IEC extrusion and membrane permeabilization following inflammasome activation by S.Tm infection. The protocols can be adapted to also study other pathogenic insults or combined with genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the involved pathways.