Histidyl-Proline Diketopiperazine Isomers as Multipotent Anti-Alzheimer Drug Candidates.

Turkez H, Cacciatore I, Arslan ME, Fornasari E, Marinelli L, Di Stefano A, Mardinoglu A

Biomolecules 10 (5) 737 [2020-05-09; online 2020-05-09]

Cyclic dipeptides administered by both parenteral and oral routes are suggested as promising candidates for the treatment of neurodegeneration-related pathologies. In this study, we tested Cyclo (His-Pro) isomers (cHP1-4) for their anti-Alzheimer potential using a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) as an Alzheimer's disease (AD) experimental model. The SH-SY5Y cell line was differentiated by the application of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) to obtain mature neuron-like cells. Amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ) peptides, the main effector in AD, were administered to the differentiated cell cultures to constitute the in vitro disease model. Next, we performed cell viability analyses 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays) to investigate the neuroprotective concentrations of cyclodipeptides using the in vitro AD model. We evaluated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α- and β-secretase activities (TACE and BACE1), antioxidant potency, and apoptotic/necrotic properties and performed global gene expression analysis to understand the main mechanism behind the neuroprotective features of cHP1-4. Moreover, we conducted sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) analyses to evaluate the genotoxic damage potential after applications with cHP1-4 on cultured human lymphocytes. Our results revealed that cHP1-4 isomers provide a different degree of neuroprotection against 1-42Aβ-induced cell death on the in vitro AD model. The applications with cHP1-4 isomers altered the activity of AChE but not the activity of TACE and BACE1. Our analysis indicated that the cHP1-4 increased the total antioxidant capacity without altering total oxidative status levels in the cellular AD model and that cHP1-4 modulated the alterations of gene expressions by 1-42Aβ exposure. We also observed that cHP1-4 exhibited noncytotoxic and non-genotoxic features in cultured human whole blood cells. In conclusion, cHP1-4 isomers, especially cHP4, have been explored as novel promising therapeutics against AD.1-42

Adil Mardinoglu

Fellows programme

PubMed 32397415

DOI 10.3390/biom10050737

Crossref 10.3390/biom10050737

pii: biom10050737
pmc: PMC7277666


Publications 7.1.3