Nat. Neurosci. 22 (4) 657-668 [2019-04-00; online 2019-03-18]
The local and long-range connectivity of cortical neurons are considered instrumental to the functional repertoire of the cortical region in which they reside. In cortical networks, distinct cell types build local circuit structures enabling computational operations. Computations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to be central to cognitive operation, including decision-making and memory. We used a retrograde trans-synaptic rabies virus system to generate brain-wide maps of the input to excitatory neurons as well as three inhibitory interneuron subtypes in the mPFC. On the global scale the input patterns were found to be mainly cell type independent, with quantitative differences in key brain regions, including the basal forebrain. Mapping of the local mPFC network revealed high connectivity between the different subtypes of interneurons. The connectivity mapping gives insight into the information that the mPFC processes and the structural architecture underlying the mPFC's unique functions.