Ying S, Chen Z, Medhurst AL, Neal JA, Bao Z, Mortusewicz O, McGouran J, Song X, Shen H, Hamdy FC, Kessler BM, Meek K, Helleday T
Cancer Res. 76 (5) 1078-1088 [2016-03-01; online 2015-11-24]
A series of critical pathways are responsible for the detection, signaling, and restart of replication forks that encounter blocks during S-phase progression. Small base lesions may obstruct replication fork progression and processing, but the link between repair of small lesions and replication forks is unclear. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized role for DNA-PK, an important enzyme in DNA repair, in cellular responses to DNA replication stress. The enzyme catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated on S2056 at sites of stalled replication forks in response to short hydroxyurea treatment. Using DNA fiber experiments, we found that catalytically active DNA-PK was required for efficient replication restart of stalled forks. Furthermore, enzymatically active DNA-PK was also required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to stalled replication forks. This activity was enhanced by preventing Mre11-dependent DNA end resection, suggesting that XRCC1 must be recruited early to an unresected stalled fork. We also found that XRCC1 was required for effective restart of a subset of stalled replication forks. Overall, our work suggested that DNA-PK and PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 is necessary to effectively protect, repair, and restart stalled replication forks, providing new insight into how genomic stability is preserved.