Ocampo Daza D, Larhammar D
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 257 (-) 143-160 [2018-02-01; online 2017-06-23]
The receptors for the pituitary hormones growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL), and the hematopoietic hormones erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO), comprise a structurally related family in the superfamily of cytokine class-I receptors. GH, PRL and SL receptors have a wide variety of effects in development, osmoregulation, metabolism and stimulation of growth, while EPO and TPO receptors guide the production and differentiation of erythrocytes and thrombocytes, respectively. The evolution of the receptors for GH, PRL and SL has been partially investigated by previous reports suggesting different time points for the hormone and receptor gene duplications. This raises questions about how hormone-receptor partnerships have emerged and evolved. Therefore, we have investigated in detail the expansion of this receptor family, especially in relation to the basal vertebrate (1R, 2R) and teleost (3R) tetraploidizations. Receptor family genes were identified in a broad range of vertebrate genomes and investigated using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomic analyses of synteny. We found that 1R most likely generated EPOR/TPOR and GHR/PRLR ancestors; following this, 2R resulted in EPOR and TPOR genes. No GHR/PRLR duplicate seems to have survived after 2R. Instead the single GHR/PRLR underwent a local duplication sometime after 2R, generating separate syntenic genes for GHR and PRLR. Subsequently, 3R duplicated the gene pair in teleosts, resulting in two GHR and two PRLR genes, but no EPOR or TPOR duplicates. These analyses help illuminate the evolution of the regulatory mechanisms for somatic growth, metabolism, osmoregulation and hematopoiesis in vertebrates.