HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials

Swerdlow DI, Preiss D, Kuchenbaecker KB, Holmes MV, Engmann JEL, Shah T, Sofat R, Stender S, Johnson PCD, Scott RA, Leusink M, Verweij N, Sharp SJ, Guo Y, Giambartolomei C, Chung C, Peasey A, Amuzu A, Li K, Palmen J, Howard P, Cooper JA, Drenos F, Li YR, Lowe G, Gallacher J, Stewart MCW, Tzoulaki I, Buxbaum SG, van der A DL, Forouhi NG, Onland-Moret NC, van der Schouw YT, Schnabel RB, Hubacek JA, Kubinova R, Baceviciene M, Tamosiunas A, Pajak A, Topor-Madry R, Stepaniak U, Malyutina S, Baldassarre D, Sennblad B, Tremoli E, de Faire U, Veglia F, Ford I, Jukema JW, Westendorp RGJ, de Borst GJ, de Jong PA, Algra A, Spiering W, der Zee AHMv, Klungel OH, de Boer A, Doevendans PA, Eaton CB, Robinson JG, Duggan D, Kjekshus J, Downs JR, Gotto AM, Keech AC, Marchioli R, Tognoni G, Sever PS, Poulter NR, Waters DD, Pedersen TR, Amarenco P, Nakamura H, McMurray JJV, Lewsey JD, Chasman DI, Ridker PM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Ray KK, Seshasai SRK, Manson JE, Price JF, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Ben-Shlomo Y, Schreiner PJ, Fornage M, Siscovick DS, Cushman M, Kumari M, Wareham NJ, Verschuren WMM, Redline S, Patel SR, Whittaker JC, Hamsten A, Delaney JA, Dale C, Gaunt TR, Wong A, Kuh D, Hardy R, Kathiresan S, Castillo BA, van der Harst P, Brunner EJ, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Marmot MG, Krauss RM, Tsai M, Coresh J, Hoogeveen RC, Psaty BM, Lange LA, Hakonarson H, Dudbridge F, Humphries SE, Talmud PJ, Kivimäki M, Timpson NJ, Langenberg C, Asselbergs FW, Voevoda M, Bobak M, Pikhart H, Wilson JG, Reiner AP, Keating BJ, Hingorani AD, Sattar N

The Lancet 385 (9965) 351-361 [2015-01-00; online 2015-01-00]

Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HMGCR gene, rs17238484 (for the main analysis) and rs12916 (for a subsidiary analysis) as proxies for HMGCR inhibition by statins. We examined associations of these variants with plasma lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations; bodyweight; waist circumference; and prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. Study-specific effect estimates per copy of each LDL-lowering allele were pooled by meta-analysis. These findings were compared with a meta-analysis of new-onset type 2 diabetes and bodyweight change data from randomised trials of statin drugs. The effects of statins in each randomised trial were assessed using meta-analysis. Data were available for up to 223 463 individuals from 43 genetic studies. Each additional rs17238484-G allele was associated with a mean 0·06 mmol/L (95% CI 0·05-0·07) lower LDL cholesterol and higher body weight (0·30 kg, 0·18-0·43), waist circumference (0·32 cm, 0·16-0·47), plasma insulin concentration (1·62%, 0·53-2·72), and plasma glucose concentration (0·23%, 0·02-0·44). The rs12916 SNP had similar effects on LDL cholesterol, bodyweight, and waist circumference. The rs17238484-G allele seemed to be associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] per allele 1·02, 95% CI 1·00-1·05); the rs12916-T allele association was consistent (1·06, 1·03-1·09). In 129 170 individuals in randomised trials, statins lowered LDL cholesterol by 0·92 mmol/L (95% CI 0·18-1·67) at 1-year of follow-up, increased bodyweight by 0·24 kg (95% CI 0·10-0·38 in all trials; 0·33 kg, 95% CI 0·24-0·42 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and -0·15 kg, 95% CI -0·39 to 0·08 in intensive-dose vs moderate-dose trials) at a mean of 4·2 years (range 1·9-6·7) of follow-up, and increased the odds of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1·12, 95% CI 1·06-1·18 in all trials; 1·11, 95% CI 1·03-1·20 in placebo or standard care controlled trials and 1·12, 95% CI 1·04-1·22 in intensive-dose vs moderate dose trials). The increased risk of type 2 diabetes noted with statins is at least partially explained by HMGCR inhibition. The funding sources are cited at the end of the paper.

Affiliated researcher

PubMed 25262344

DOI 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61183-1

Crossref 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61183-1


Publications 6.6.3