Mao Y, Poschke I, Kiessling R
J. Intern. Med. 276 (2) 154-170 [2014-08-00; online 2014-03-24]
Tumour-induced immune dysfunction is a serious challenge to immunotherapy for cancer, and intact adaptive and innate cellular immunity is key to its success. Myelomonocytic cells have a central role in this immune suppression, and tumour-associated macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have all been shown to be of major importance. These myelomonocytic cells secrete a broad repertoire of inflammatory mediators providing them with powerful tools to inhibit tumour-reactive T cells and natural killer cells; free oxygen radicals including reactive oxygen species and NO, arginase, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandins, the pro-inflammatory heterodimer S100A8/9 and cytokines, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and transforming growth factor-β, have proven particularly potent in suppressing antitumour cellular immunity. Determining which of these factors prevail in individual cancer patients and designing methods aimed at neutralization or inhibition of their effects on target tissues have the potential to greatly enhance the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy.