Leong IUS, Stuckey A, Ahanian T, Cederlöf M, Wikstrom JD
PLoS ONE 12 (10) e0186356 [2017-10-13; online 2017-10-13]
Darier disease is a rare and severe autosomal dominant skin disease characterised by malodorous keratotic papules in seborrheic areas of the skin. Darier disease affects up to 1 in 30 000 people and is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene, which encodes to the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase isoform 2 that pumps calcium into the endoplasmic reticulum. Although many ATP2A2 variants have been described, it is not known if genotype correlates with phenotype, which could be important for prognosis and treatment. This is the first study to use whole exome sequencing to screen the ATP2A2 gene in a cohort of 28 clinically diagnosed Darier disease patients. Twenty-one different disease causing variants were identified and 15 of these were novel. Sixteen of the 21 variants were predicted to be pathogenic using in silico prediction programs. There were seven missense, four intronic/splice-sites, three frameshifts, two in-frame deletions, four nonsense and one synonymous mutations. This study also found ten patients who harbour more than one ATP2A2 variant. The phenotype of the patient cohort was assessed by photography and by patient questionnaires. The genotype-phenotype association was examined for all variants in relation to the patient's disease severity score, and no correlation could be established.