Artemenko K, Mi J, Bergquist J
Free Radic. Res. 49 (5) 477-493 [2015-05-00; online 2015-04-17]
Protein modifications such as oxidations have a strong impact on protein function and activity in various organisms. High-resolution mass spectrometric techniques in combination with various sample preparation methodologies allow for the in-detail characterization of protein structures and strongly contribute to a greater understanding of the impact of protein modifications in nature. This paper outlines the general workflows for the characterization of oxidation sites in proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Different types of oxidations are taken into consideration; both qualitative and quantitative aspects of MS-based approaches are presented with respect to oxidized proteins. Both bottom-up and top-down MS approaches are described and evaluated; a wide range of the particular applications corresponding to these techniques is also presented. Furthermore, the common advantages and downsides of these techniques are assessed. The approaches for enrichment of low-abundance oxidized proteins are extensively presented for different cysteine oxidations and protein carbonylations. A short description about databases and bioinformatic software solutions for oxidative protein prediction, identification, and biological interpretation is also given in this review.