Teleki A, Bjelobrk N, Pratsinis SE
Langmuir 26 (8) 5815-5822 [2010-04-20; online 2010-03-03]
Hydrophilic TiO(2) particles made in a flame aerosol reactor were converted in situ to hydrophobic ones by silylation of their surface hydroxyl groups. So the freshly formed titania aerosol was mixed with a fine spray of octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) in water/ethanol solution and functionalized continuously at high temperature. The extent of functionalization and structure of that surface layer were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to mass spectroscopy (MS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy. Product particles were characterized also by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption. The influence of titania specific surface area (SSA) and OTES solution concentration on the functional group surface density was investigated. The titanium dioxide surface was covered with functional groups (up to 2.9 wt %) that were thermally stable up to 300 degrees C in air at an average density of 2 OTES/nm(2). Such surface-functionalized particle suspensions in 2-ethylhexanoic acid and xylene were stable over several weeks. In contrast, as-prepared hydrophilic TiO(2) precipitated within days in these solvents.