Zuo M, Rashid A, Wang Y, Jain A, Li D, Behari A, Kapoor VK, Koay EJ, Chang P, Vauthey JN, Li Y, Espinoza JA, Roa JC, Javle M
Oncotarget 7 (23) 35302-35312 [2016-06-07; online 2016-05-12]
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy. Although surgical resection may be curable, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced unresectable disease stage. Cholelithiasis is the major risk factor; however the pathogenesis of the disease, from gallstone cholecystitis to cancer, is still not understood. To understand the molecular genetic underpinnings of this cancer and explore novel therapeutic targets for GBC, we examined the key genes and pathways involved in GBC using RNA sequencing. We performed gene expression analysis of 32 cases of surgically-resected GBC along with normal gallbladder tissue controls. We observed that 519 genes were differentially expressed between GBC and normal GB mucosal controls. The liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) /RXR pathways were the top canonical pathways involved in GBC. Key genes in these pathways, including SERPINB3 and KLK1, were overexpressed in GBC, especially in female GBC patients. Additionally, ApoA1 gene expression suppressed in GBC as compared with normal control tissues. LXR and FXR genes, known to be important in lipid metabolism also function as tumor suppressors and their down regulation appears to be critical for GBC pathogenesis. LXR agonists may have therapeutic value and as potential therapeutic targets.