Vrettou M, Nilsson KW, Tuvblad C, Rehn M, Åslund C, Andershed AK, Wallén-Mackenzie Å, Andershed H, Hodgins S, Nylander I, Comasco E
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28 (10) 1329-1340 [2019-10-00; online 2019-02-25]
The importance of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-mediated neurotransmission has been highlighted in studies on addiction-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2290045 in VGLUT2 has been associated with alcohol dependence, but it is unknown whether or how this association is affected by environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of alcohol-related problems with the rs2290045 in the VGLUT2 gene was modified by negative and positive environmental factors. Three samples were included: a clinical sample of 131 adolescents followed from age 17 to 22; a general population sample of 1794 young adults; and a general population sample of 1687 adolescents followed from age 14 to 17. DNA was extracted from saliva and the rs2290045 (T/C) was genotyped. Alcohol-related problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Stressful life events (SLE) and parenting were assessed by questionnaires. Gene-environment interactions were investigated using a dual statistical approach. In all samples (effect sizes 0.6-6.2%), and consistent with the differential susceptibility framework, T carriers exposed to SLE reported more alcohol-related problems if they had experienced poor parenting, and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting. T carriers not exposed to SLE reported higher alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received poor parenting. Among CC carriers, alcohol-related problems did not vary as a function of negative and positive environmental factors. In conclusion, in three samples of youths, alcohol-related problems were associated with an interaction of VGLUT2 rs2290045, SLE, and parenting.