Regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism in biofilms.

Jonas K, Melefors O, Römling U

Future Microbiol 4 (3) 341-358 [2009-04-00; online 2009-03-31]

Cyclic (5 to 3 )-diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a small molecule that regulates the transition between the sessile and motile lifestyle, an integrative part of biofilm formation and other multicellular behavior, in many bacteria. The recognition of c-di-GMP as a novel secondary messenger soon raised the question about the specificity of the signaling system, as individual bacterial genomes frequently encode numerous c-di-GMP metabolizing proteins. Recent work has demonstrated that several global regulators concertedly modify the expression of selected panels of c-di-GMP metabolizing proteins, which act on targets with physiological functions. Within complex feed-forward arrangements, the global regulators commonly combine the control of c-di-GMP metabolism with the direct regulation of proteins with functions in motility or biofilm formation, leading to precise and fine-tuned output responses that determine bacterial behavior. c-di-GMP metabolizing proteins are also controlled at the post-translational level by mechanisms including phosphorylation, localization, protein-protein interactions or protein stability. A detailed understanding of such complex regulatory mechanisms will not only help to explain the specificity in c-di-GMP signaling systems, but will also be necessary to understand the high phenotypic diversity within bacterial biofilms at the single cell level.

Kristina Jonas

QC bibliography QC xrefs

PubMed 19327118

DOI 10.2217/fmb.09.7

Crossref 10.2217/fmb.09.7