Higher risk of severe hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with a rapid loss of C-peptide during the first 6 years after type 1 diabetes diagnosis

Grönberg A, Espes D, Carlsson P, Ludvigsson J

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care - (-) - [2022-12-01; online 2022-11-16]

ntroduction The progression to insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes is heterogenous. This study aimed to identify early characteristics associated with rapid or slow decline of beta-cell function and how it affects the clinical course. Research design and methods Stimulated C-peptide was assessed by mixed meal tolerance test in 50 children (<18 years) during 2004–2017, at regular intervals for 6 years from type 1 diabetes diagnosis. 40% of the children had a rapid decline of stimulated C-peptide defined as no measurable C-peptide (<0.03 nmol/L) 30 months after diagnosis. Results At diagnosis, higher frequencies of detectable glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and IA-2A (p=0.027) were associated with rapid loss of beta-cell function. C-peptide was predicted positively by age at 18 months (p=0.017) and 30 months duration (p=0.038). BMI SD scores (BMISDS) at diagnosis predicted higher C-peptide at diagnosis (p=0.006), 3 months (p=0.002), 9 months (p=0.005), 30 months (p=0.022), 3 years (p=0.009), 4 years (p=0.016) and 6 years (p=0.026), whereas high HbA1c and blood glucose at diagnosis predicted a lower C-peptide at diagnosis (p=<0.001) for both comparisons. Both GADA and IA-2A were negative predictors of C-peptide at 9 months (p=0.011), 18 months (p=0.008) and 30 months (p<0.001). Ten children had 22 events of severe hypoglycemia, and they had lower mean C-peptide at 18 months (p=0.025), 30 months (p=0.008) and 6 years (p=0.018) compared with others. Seven of them had a rapid decline of C-peptide (p=0.030), and the odds to experience a severe hypoglycemia were nearly fivefold increased (OR=4.846, p=0.04). Conclusions Low age and presence of multiple autoantibodies at diagnosis predicts a rapid loss of beta-cell function in children with type 1 diabetes. Low C-peptide is associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia and higher Hemoglobin A1C. A high BMISDS at diagnosis is predictive of remaining beta-cell function during the 6 years of follow-up. Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; C-Peptide; Hypoglycemia; Pediatrics

Daniel Espes

SciLifeLab Fellow

PubMed 36384886

DOI 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002991

Crossref 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002991

Publications 9.5.0