Zhang W, Ambikan AT, Sperk M, van Domselaar R, Nowak P, Noyan K, Russom A, Sönnerborg A, Neogi U
EBioMedicine 27 (-) 40-50 [2018-01-00; online 2017-12-12]
A small subset of HIV-1 infected individuals, the "Elite Controllers" (EC), can control viral replication and restrain progression to immunodeficiency without antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, a cross-sectional transcriptomics and targeted proteomics analysis were performed in a well-defined Swedish cohort of untreated EC (n=19), treatment naïve patients with viremia (VP, n=32) and HIV-1-negative healthy controls (HC, n=23). The blood transcriptome identified 151 protein-coding genes that were differentially expressed (DE) in VP compared to EC. Genes like CXCR6 and SIGLEC1 were downregulated in EC compared to VP. A definite distinction in gene expression between males and females among all patient-groups were observed. The gene expression profile between female EC and the healthy females was similar but did differ between male EC and healthy males. At targeted proteomics analysis, 90% (29/32) of VPs clustered together while EC and HC clustered separately from VP. Among the soluble factors, 33 were distinctive to be statistically significant (False discovery rate=0.02). Cell surface receptor signaling pathway, programmed cell death, response to cytokine and cytokine-mediated signaling seem to synergistically play an essential role in HIV-1 control in EC.