Rebič M, Mocci F, Laaksonen A, Uličný J
J Phys Chem B 119 (1) 105-113 [2015-01-08; online 2014-12-17]
We present a coarse-grain (CG) model of human telomeric G-quadruplex, obtained using the inverse Monte Carlo (IMC) and iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) techniques implemented within the software package called MagiC. As a starting point, the 2HY9 human telomeric [3 + 1] hybrid, a 26-nucleobase sequence, was modeled performing a 1 μs long atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The chosen quadruplex includes two kinds of loops and all possible combinations of relative orientations of guanine strands that can be found in quadruplexes. The effective CG potential for a one bead per nucleotide model has been developed from the radial distribution functions of this reference system. The obtained potentials take into account explicitly the interaction with counterions, while the effect of the solvent is included implicitly. The structural properties of the obtained CG model of the quadruplex provided a perfect match to those resulting from the reference atomistic MD simulation. The same set of interaction potentials was then used to simulate at the CG level another quadruplex topology (PDB id 1KF1 ) that can be formed by the human telomeric DNA sequence. This quadruplex differs from 2HY9 in the loop topology and G-strand relative orientation. The results of the CG MD simulations of 1KF1 are very encouraging and suggest that the CG model based on 2HY9 can be used to simulate quadruplexes with different topologies. The CG model was further applied to a higher order human telomeric quadruplex formed by the repetition, 20 times, of the 1KF1 quadruplex structure. In all cases, the developed model, which to the best of our knowledge is the first model of quadruplexes at the CG level presented in the literature, reproduces the main structural features remarkably well.