Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2 (4) 441-448 [2011-07-00; online 2011-02-03]
Developmental dyslexia has been recognized as a distinct entity among learning disabilities as early as the late 1800s and its partially genetic nature has been firmly established by family and twin studies. The application of genetic mapping and molecular cloning methods has revealed specific genes that contribute to the genetic risk, but those known now do not yet suffice for explaining all of it. More importantly, the first genes, some of them found by the study of rare families, have indicated specific neurodevelopmental processes important for the development of dyslexia, including control of neuronal migration for the DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319 genes, and a role of axonal and dendritic guidance suggested by the ROBO1 gene. I anticipate that forthcoming research within only a few years will yield molecular networks with fundamental roles in the molecular biology of dyslexia, and may aid in resolving relationships between comorbid disorders. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 441-448 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.138 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.