Bramswig NC, Lüdecke HJ, Pettersson M, Albrecht B, Bernier RA, Cremer K, Eichler EE, Falkenstein D, Gerdts J, Jansen S, Kuechler A, Kvarnung M, Lindstrand A, Nilsson D, Nordgren A, Pfundt R, Spruijt L, Surowy HM, de Vries BB, Wieland T, Engels H, Strom TM, Kleefstra T, Wieczorek D
Hum. Genet. 136 (2) 179-192 [2017-02-00; online 2016-11-15]
The ubiquitin pathway is an enzymatic cascade including activating E1, conjugating E2, and ligating E3 enzymes, which governs protein degradation and sorting. It is crucial for many physiological processes. Compromised function of members of the ubiquitin pathway leads to a wide range of human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12 (TRIP12) gene (OMIM 604506), which encodes an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin pathway, have been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition to autistic features, TRIP12 mutation carriers showed intellectual disability (ID). More recently, TRIP12 was postulated as a novel candidate gene for intellectual disability in a meta-analysis of published ID cohorts. However, detailed clinical information characterizing the phenotype of these individuals was not provided. In this study, we present seven novel individuals with private TRIP12 mutations including two splice site mutations, one nonsense mutation, three missense mutations, and one translocation case with a breakpoint in intron 1 of the TRIP12 gene and clinically review four previously published cases. The TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals presented with mild to moderate ID (10/11) or learning disability [intelligence quotient (IQ) 76 in one individual], ASD (8/11) and some of them with unspecific craniofacial dysmorphism and other anomalies. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of 11 TRIP12 mutation-positive individuals and thereby expand the clinical spectrum of the TRIP12 gene in non-syndromic intellectual disability with or without ASD.